Table 2

Brief summary of SSF experiments carried out on hexose sugars.

Raw material

Type of pretreatment

Amount of solids 1

Detoxification

Temp (°C)

Strain

Cultivation on hydrolyzate

Final ethanol conc. (g L-1)

Ethanol yield (%) 2

Mode of operation 3

Year and reference


Barley straw

Steam

7.5% WIS

No

35

S. cerevisiae

Yes

22.4

80

Batch

2007 [121]

Salix

Steam

9% WIS

No

37

S. cerevisiae

Yes

32

76

Batch

2006 [120]

Salix

Steam

11% WIS

No

37

S. cerevisiae

Yes

33

62

Fed-batch

2006 [120]

Spruce

Steam

10% WIS

No

37

S. cerevisiae

Yes

44.5

84

Batch

2005 [117]

Spruce

Steam

6–10% WIS

No

37

S. cerevisiae

Yes

44.5

84

Fed-batch

2005 [117]

Yellow Poplar Hardwood

Dilute-acid

11.5% WIS

LLE-OL 4

34

Z. mobilis

No

32.2

54

Batch

1999 [131]

Poplar

Steam

10% w/v

No (only solids in def. medium)

42

K. fragilis CECT 10875

No

19.0

71.2

Shake flask

2004 [138]

Eucalyptus

Steam

10% w/v

No (only solids in def. medium)

42

K. fragilis CECT 10875

No

17.0

62.5

Shake flask

2004 [138]

Wheat straw

Steam

10% w/v

No (only solids in def. medium)

42

K. fragilis CECT 10875

No

18.1

62.5

Shake flask

2004 [138]

Sweet sorghum bagasse

Steam

10% w/v

No (only solids in def. medium)

42

K. fragilis CECT 10875

No

16.2

60.9

Shake flask

2004 [138]

B. carinata residue

Steam

10% w/v

No (only solids in def. medium)

42

K. fragilis CECT 10875

No

19.0

68.1

Shake flask

2004 [138]

Old corrugated cardboard (OCC)

none

6 wt %

No, def. medium

40

K. fragilis

No

14.1

61.2 *

Shake flask

2004 [154]

Old corrugated cardboard (OCC)

none

6 wt %

No, def. medium

40

S. cerevisiae

No

14.2

61.8 *

Shake flask

2004 [154]

Paper sludge

none

6 wt %

No, def. medium

40

K. fragilis

No

8.8

63.7 *

Shake flask

2004 [154]

Paper sludge

none

6 wt %

No, def. medium

40

S. cerevisiae

No

9.0

65.5 *

Shake flask

2004 [154]

Antigonum leptopus leaves

Alkaline + H2O2

10% w/v

No

43

K. fragilis

No

27

n.a.

Shake flask

2001 [141]

Antigonum leptopus leaves

Alkaline + H2O2

10% w/v

No

40

S. cerevisiae

No

21

n.a.

Shake flask

2001 [141]

Sugar cane leaves

Alkaline + H2O2

10% w/v

No

43

K. fragilis

No

28

n.a

Shake flask

2001 [141]

Sugar cane leaves

Alkaline + H2O2

10% w/v

No

40

S. cerevisiae

No

22

n.a.

Shake flask

2001 [141]

Willow (Salix caprea QO82)

Steam- pretreatment

10% dry matter

No

37

S. cerevisiae

No

28.7

84.4

Batch

1995 [122]

Willow (Salix caprea QO82)

Steam

10% dry matter

No

37

Z. mobilis

No

27.9

82.1

Batch

1995 [122]

Switchgrass

Dilute sulfuric acid

7.5% w/v cellulose

No (only solids in def. medium)

37

S. cerevisiae & B. clausenii mixed culture

No

37.0 *

87 5

Shake flask

1992 [136]

Sweetgum

Dilute sulfuric acid

7.5% w/v cellulose

No (only solids in def. medium)

37

S. cerevisiae

No

36.6 *

86 5

Shake flask

1992 [136]

Corn cob

Dilute sulfuric acid

7.5% w/v cellulose

No (only solids in def. medium)

37

S. cerevisiae

No

39.1 *

94 5

Shake flask

1992 [136]

Corn stover

Dilute sulfuric acid

7.5% w/v cellulose

No (only solids in def. medium)

37

S. cerevisiae

No

39.1 *

92 5

Shake flask

1992 [136]

Wheat straw

Dilute sulfuric acid

7.5% w/v cellulose

No (only solids in def. medium)

37

S. cerevisiae

No

38.3 *

90 5

Shake flask

1992 [136]

Populus

Dilute sulfuric acid

7.5% w/v cellulose

No (only solids in def. medium)

37

S. cerevisiae

No

38.3 *

90 5

Shake flask

1991 [125]

Populus

Dilute sulfuric acid

7.5% w/v cellulose

No (only solids in def. medium)

37

S. cerevisiae

No

36.6 *

86 5

Batch

1991 [125]


* Not directly given in the reference article, calculated by the authors.

1. The amount of solids can vary significantly due to how this is reported (e.g. WIS or dry matter), and may have a large impact on the SSF results. This is not always clearly defined in the respective research article.

2. Based on maximal theoretical ethanol yield on available hexoses, in most cases only glucose.

3. Batch and Fed-batch refers to SSF in bioreactor/fermenter.

4. LLE-OL = Liquid-liquid extraction followed by overliming

5. The maximal theoretical yield was assumed by Wyman et al. [136] to be only 95% due to cell growth.

Olofsson et al. Biotechnology for Biofuels 2008 1:7   doi:10.1186/1754-6834-1-7

Open Data